Mapping Slavery in America
English physician Marshall Hall (1790-1857) and his son travelled through the United States, Canada, and Cuba in 1854. He published an account of his experiences and observations as The Two-fold Slavery of the United States; with a Project of Self-emancipation in 1854. The frontispiece shows a map of the states with the number of slaves in each--the darker shading indicating the greater number of slaves.
Hall included reproductions of newspaper advertisements for the sale of slaves and expressed particular outrage at the separation of spouses and parents from their children.
He said, "The States whose names most figure in the advertisements for the sale of slaves in New Orleans, are Virgnia, North and South Carolina, Kentucky, Georgia, and Missouri.... The others are plainly 'breeding' States in the inverse ratio of their increase.... Thus then the 'breeding' of the human species is carried on just as that of cattle is carried on. The proceeding begins with irreligion and immorality; it proceeds to the eventual separation of parent and child... and lastly it leads to public sales of the young of both sexes, for every purpose to which they may be applied."
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